Deodorants have become essential commodities that the contemporary society for grooming. The activity of wearing different deodorants and the antiperspirant sprays appear small but have adverse effects on the ecosystem. The process of manufacturing these deodorants entails using hazardous chemicals that have detrimental effects on the ozone layer. The process of making these products also pose a significant effect on the economy since CO2 emissions pose a huge financial burden to the companies. The purpose of this research is to investigate the cost-benefit analysis of using antiperspirants containing the aluminum-based ingredients.
Secret deodorant and the antiperspirant is a cosmetic product that is manufactured by Proctor and Gamble. I prefer using this deodorant for sweat protection for long hours and regulating the odors experienced during sweating. The research conducted by Proctor and Gamble has established that more than 25% of people in the US use this product for grooming purposes. This aspect implies that the Company is also using a significant amount of chemicals to manufacture to enhance revenue collection for their organization.
According to Proctor and Gamble (n.d.), the active ingredients that are required for the manufacture of this deodorant and an antiperspirant include the Aluminum Chlorohydrate. There are also inactive ingredients such as the palm oil, Hydrofluorocarbon, Butane, Isopropyl Myristate, Dimethicone, Cyclopentasiloxane and fragrance (Proctor and Gamble, n.d). Other ingredients such as the methylpropane are also included but are in lower quantities. The palm oil is included for the purpose of lubricating the roll on and as oil to suppress make it easy for one to apply. However, most of these ingredients have adverse effects on the body and the ecosystem. The Aluminum which is an active ingredient in the manufacture of these deodorants and the antiperspirants are obtained as raw materials from through electrolysis from the bauxite minerals. The mining of bauxite is done through an open-cast method that entails excavating the earth surface which also affects the agricultural land. The process of processing the raw bauxite to aluminum requires massive consumption of electricity power.
The greenhouse gas emission that is produced in the process of smelting the aluminum ore includes carbon dioxide, sodium fluoride, polycyclic hydrocarbon, and sulfur dioxide that are extremely hazardous. These deodorants and the antiperspirants are usually packaged in an aluminum container which also entails massive heating and production of Co2 in the atmosphere. Chlorofluorocarbons are also part of the inactive ingredients that are prevalent in the secret deodorant. Glass has acknowledged that the presence of the CFCs in the antiperspirants and deodorants are problematic to the ozone layer. They can also have adverse effects when exposed inhaled because they can interfere with the air sucks in the lungs and cause respiratory problems.
The first step in the manufacture of deodorant and antiperspirant is known as batching. All the ingredients are mixed and heated in a large stainless steel kettle at a temperature of above 200 degrees Celsius. The mixture also contains the hydrofluorocarbons which also produce a significant amount of CO2 during the heating process. The parabens are also created through the chemical reaction of the hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohol (Proctor and Gamble, n.d.). The primary functions of this component are to prevent bacteria formation which usually leads to the body odor.
The next step is mixing with the fragrance which involved the palm oil. The increase in the demand for the palm oil for the manufacture of these deodorants and antiperspirants has made the indigenous forests be replaced by the palm tree plantations. The carbon sequestered in the forests are released as the carbon dioxide which accounts for 10% of annual global warming reports.
The next process entails filling the deodorant and the antiperspirants in the molded tube. After they are filled into the packages, they are taken to a cooling zone where they are subjected to a rapid solidification process. The coolant that are normally used entail the solid carbon dioxide, water and liquid nitrogen.
According to the research reports by Aluminum Association, the process of manufacturing 1000 molded packaging can require 16.78 kg of aluminum sheet. The manufacturing process can produce 3.447 kilograms of the postindustrial scrap that can be shipped back to the industry for the melting process. This process implies that approximately 2.3 tons of CO2 are emitted into the atmosphere in the process of manufacturing the packaging materials for 1000 packaging materials of these deodorants. When analyzed using the closed loop approach, the mass flows per every 1000 packaging material there is a deficit which is a burden to the company.
According to the 2014 sustainability report, the company was subjected to a fine of $159,035 that were based on air emissions. The Company also received five notices of violations during the same year of the violation. On the other hand, the antiperspirant and deodorant which has been categorized under the beauty products represented 20% of the net earnings in the 2014/2015 financial year. If the net sales included $70.7 billion, then this means that the total amount of revenue collected from the antiperspirant and deodorants is more than $12.6 billion. The overall cost associated with the production of the actual cost of purchasing one bottle of these products range from $12 to $60 for the 75 grams.
When all the CO2 equivalents are summed up the value can be estimated to reach 15.6 tons of CO2 emission annually. Therefore, when calculated at $225 per ton the value is $3510. Nonetheless, when this figure is added to the unquantified level of environmental pollution, it implies that the value of the product should be $67.73 which is still high compared to the current market price.
It can be evident that a single bottle of an antiperspirant and deodorants undergoes processes that are detrimental to the environmental sustainability. Therefore, it is an obligation for these companies such as Proctor and Gamble to consider reduction of quantities of the hazardous components to enhance environmental sustainability. It is also apparent that the production of these products depends on the palm oil. However, the palm oil farmers have also contributed to the reduction of indigenous forests which are significant in cleaning the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Therefore, the Company should consider taking supplies from oil palm farmers that meet the sustainability requirements. The Company should also emphasize on the renewable sources of energy to minimize the over-consumption of heat energy during the manufacturing of the packaging materials. This is because during the production process a lot of carbon components are emitted to the atmosphere which is also harmful to the ecosystem. This research has also established that there is the need for reduction in the usage of the antiperspirants and deodorants because of the effects it has on the environment.
In conclusion, it can be evident that the aluminum-based components in the deodorants and antiperspirants are unsafe. Therefore, the companies dealing in the production of these products should emphasize on a more sustainable approach to generating income for their products. Furthermore, the government should intervene and make it a requirement for these companies to include all the ingredients and inform the consumers of the risks associated. The logical fallacies used in the marketing and promotional activities should also be regulated to enhance a significant consumer education. Finally, this approach would be relevant in reducing the carbon dioxide emissions that can be avoided.