FIFA and the International Olympic Committee use football as the official name of the international game. Football is a team sport in which the aim is to score the ball in the opponent's goals using legs or other parts of the body (except hands) more times than the opposing team. Currently, football is the most popular and mass sport in the world. There are 17 official rules of the game, each of which contains a list of reservations and guidelines. These rules are intended to apply to all levels of football, although there are some changes for groups such as juniors, seniors, women and people with disabilities. The laws are often framed in general terms that simplify their application depending on the nature of the game. Each team consists of a maximum of eleven players (excluding substitutes), one of whom must be the goalkeeper. Informal rules of the competition can reduce the number of players to a maximum of 7 goalkeepers are the only players who are allowed to play a hand, provided they do so within the penalty area from their own goal. Although there are different positions on the field, these positions are not obligatory. The aim of the game is to score the ball into the opponent's goal and do it as a lot of times and try to prevent a goal into their own goal. The match is won by the team that scores more goals. This paper will examine the phenomenon of modern football giving its historical background and future prospects.
History of Football
Funeral ball games have long been widespread in all the continents. The ball games were played in many countries. In China, this kind of game was called Chu-Ke. In ancient Sparta game was called Episkyros, and in ancient Rome, it was Harpastum. Somewhere in the modern era, in Bryansk lands, the game which used a leather ball with the size of about a human head full of feathers were held. Around the XIV century, the Italians invented the game Calcio. They brought this game to Britain.
In the XIX century in England, football gained popularity comparable to cricket. It was mainly played in college. In some colleges, there was a right to hold and pass the ball with the hands, while in others, on the contrary, it was forbidden. The first attempt to establish uniform rules was made in 1846 when representatives of several colleges met. They established the first set of rules. In 1855, the first football club Sheffield was founded. In 1863, after lengthy negotiations, a set of rules of the Football Association of England was adopted. Also, the sizes of the field and the goals have been accepted. In 1871, the FA Cup which is the oldest football tournament in the world was founded. In 1891, a rule about the penalty was figured out. First, the penalty was executing not from the point but from the line, which as now situated at a distance of 11 meters from the goals.
In 1863, in England, he was separated from rugby football and were approved by the first football rules. At that time, matches were held at very low levels. Of the eleven players, only goalie and one defender defending their own goals, meanwhile the remaining nine players crowded around the gates of the enemy and tried to score a goal. This uneven division could not be planned and tactically correct since the forwarders fully controlled a large part of the field. In the middle of the field, there were two departed midfielders in order to help defender. They took part in the defense of the goals, and at the time of the attacks did not go too close to the goal. It was possible to name this archaic positioning a tactical scheme. Formally, it could be called "1-1-2-7" (goalkeeper, defender, two midfielders and seven forwarders).
In 80-ies of the XIX century, football has become popular in society. The number of clubs in the Football Association reached a number under one hundred. At the same time, there were rumors that some clubs pay the players wages, meanwhile, in the original plan of association, football was exclusively amateur sport. Therefore, they had to add the paragraph stating that every player of the club, getting the club a fee in any whatsoever form or a refund in excess of his personal expenses or funds in connection with access to a particular game will automatically be suspended in the competition for the Cup, in any event under the auspices of the FA and in international tournaments. The club, hire a player, is automatically excluded from the Association.
At the end of 19th century, the club Upton Park accused Preston North End in the fact that the players of this club receive a salary. President of the Preston William Saddle recognized this fact. The club was expelled from the FA. However, a little later, Football Association still allowed paying the players wages. This fact led to the creation of the world's first regular Football League. The champion of the tournament was Preston North End. In 1872, an international match was held first. It was a match between England and Scotland. In 1904, in Paris, FIFA which is football management organization was founded. It included Belgium, Denmark, France, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. In 1901, in Montevideo, the first ever match between teams who did not represent the British Isles was held.
In 1921, there was a proposal by FIFA to consider the subsequent Olympic football tournaments World Cup among the fans. In 1924 and 1928 years, these tournaments were won by the Uruguayan national team. Thanks to these successes, Uruguayan Football Association did not have competitors in the struggle of the first FIFA World Cup in the history which took place in 1930. Uruguayans have won domestic championships, the triple champion of the FIFA World and became the first holders of the FIFA World Cup. This was the beginning of a new era in the history of football. Before 1970, the trophy was named by the name of Jules Rimet, and was also known as the goddess Nike Cup, but after the third victory of the Brazilian team in the World Cup, it was given to it for eternal storage. Instead, a modern World Cup became be played.
According to FIFA's statement, in 2001, on the planet, about 250 million people played football. Of these, more than 20 million are women. about 1.5 million teams and 300 000 professional clubs are registered. In the distribution of the countries by the number of playing football, the United States occupy the first place (about 18 million, of which 40% are women), followed by Indonesia (10 million), Mexico (7.4 million), China (7.2 million), Brazil (7 million), Germany (6.2 million), Bangladesh (5.2 million), Italy (4 million), Russia (3.8 million). However, the number of players in a particular country does not evidence about the quality of football in different parts of the world. Thus, the World Cup was won only by European and South American teams, meanwhile, in Uruguay, which is a two-time winner of the FIFA World Cup, there are fewer people than players registered in Russia.
Competitions in Football
Competitions in football, as in any other sport is an important part of the game. The competition is organized by the Federation for each tournament regulations are drawn up, which are usually determined by the composition of the participants, the tournament circuit, the rules for determining the winner in case of equality of points and any deviation from the rules, for example, the number of substitutions. Competitions are divided into domestic and international, which in turn are divided into the club and national teams. Football tournaments collect tens of thousands of spectators in the stands of the stadium and millions of viewers on television. The most famous competitions are conducted by FIFA (National teams, World Championship, Confederations Cup, Olympic Games, Club, FIFA Club World Cup); conducted by League (National teams, Europe championship, Club, UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europa League, UEFA Super Cup); conducted by CONMEBOL (National teams, America's Cup, Club, Copa Libertadores, Sudamericana, Recopa Sudamericana); conducted by CONCACAF (National teams, CONCACAF Gold Cup, Club, CONCACAF Champions League).
FIFA World Cup is a major international football competition. World Championship held by the governing body of world football FIFA. Men's national teams of FIFA member countries from all continents participate in it. Theoretically, the tournament can take and more than one country, but for more than 85-year history, only once FIFA has entrusted the conduct of the World Cup two countries. Subsequently, the organization has repeatedly made it clear that it is not aimed at conducting the tournament in two or more countries. In contrast, for example, UEFA has repeatedly confided European Championships several countries.
The final tournaments of the world championships are held every 4 years, like the Olympics, however, given the regional qualifying tournaments, each FIFA World Cup continues for more than 3 years. In the qualifying rounds of the world championship, in 2010, 204 teams have attended. In the final tournament, which takes place every 4 years for about a month in the selected in advance host country 32 teams attend - 31 teams, received this right on the basis of the qualifying tournament, and the team of the host country. Winner of the last draw of the world Cup participated in the final tournament without passing qualification until 2002. Since 2006, the winner of the last world Cup holds the qualifying tournament on a universal basis.
The final part of the World Cup, held since 1930 with a break in 1942 and 1946 due to World War II, has a huge audience and attracts a lot of interest around the world. For example, the 2006 championship finale was watched by 715.1 million viewers that became the ninth most viewed TV coverage. The last World Cup was held in Brazil in 2014. The current world champion is the national team of Germany. Next Championships will be held in Russia in 2018, and the next championship will be held in 2022 in Qatar.
Impact of Football on Society
Due to the simplicity and media support, football has become a "global sport". However, like any cultural phenomenon, it is ambiguous. On the one hand, football like no other sport, and any other mass phenomenon, contributes to the formation of patriotism of people, the unity of the people, national pride, the positive mood of the masses, mass consciousness and other favorable for society consequences. World Cup FIFA is often called globalization holiday. This refers to the globalization in a positive sense. Of course, the media portraying of football matches of major championships such as the Champions League or the World Cup, as the important events on a global scale played a role in this regards. On the other hand, on the contrary, the role of football in the formation of nationalism, chauvinism, xenophobia, national psychosis large masses, and even the whole society could be emphasized. It can be said that it leads to the unbridled angry mob, the anomalous behavior of youth groups, etc.
Thus, on the one hand, football brings people together, and on the other, often brings the most ardent fans to battering, although it is just a game. Football combines perfectly a component of competition, team play, and consistency. The meaning of this sport is in fact not to neutralize the opponent, but to win. Accordingly, the opponents on the field are fundamentally interested in the further existence of each other, even in the case of loss. Football is a storm of emotions, including aggression. These conflicts are playing the role of compensating. For a person who is not at peace with himself, it is difficult to admit defeat. This principle can be transferred to the whole society in some way. For example, there is a nation for whom success in football compensates for the failure or difficulties in other areas. For example, in Honduras and El Salvador, there are a number of unresolved issues, and this conflict is clearly expressed in football. In the case of Cote d'Ivoire, on the contrary, it can be seen how football was able to unite the nation, survived the civil war. That is to say, football, as well as many other phenomena, has two aspects: one, it may provoke conflicts, on the other hand, it has the potential to solve the problems. It all depends on the situation.
The Future of Football
The huge amount of money is acting in the global, national and club football. Professional football clubs officially and publicly sell and buy players, making this a lucrative business. in the past 20-30 years, buying and selling of a man, their talents, abilities and achievements have become the norm in Italy and England, France and Spain, and other countries. Europe is full with Brazilian, African, and in recent years - Asian players. This trend in world football is becoming typical for other sports games and other sports. It penetrates and strongly heated by press, TV and radio.
The commercialization of football and television has led to the internationalization, the globalization of the football world. In Europe, this is most clearly visible. Football players from different countries play in dozens of countries and hundreds of other clubs. As a result, there was plenty of legal problems in football, affecting and sometimes trampling the personal rights of the individual players, as well as their civil rights and so on. Football community is aware that the broad commercialization of the sport today is accompanied by exceptional ease of choosing and changing ideals. As the result, there is a point of view that relations with the new public clubs became weaker, it is more focused on success, and tends to change their preferences for certain commands. Consequently, football can no longer be rooted in a particular social system, the social base, and should abstractly be powered by history.
However, it can be said that against the background of the history of football such fears appear to be unfounded. Firstly, modern football from the very beginning was a game for individuals who did not have a genuine connection with the growing community. One might even say that it has used individualization trends of the 20th century and compensate them in different and various ways. Thus, football has largely borrowed its ideology from already existing communities, primarily in the nation. Secondly, modern football throughout more than a century of its history has been turned into a cultural heritage. It does not longer needs the support of non-sporting semantic connections, because for its adherents, it in itself is a certain semantic relationship. From this viewpoint, the future of football, in fact, depends on whether and how the entertainment value of the game will increase in further. The responsible person may have only a very limited impact on many of the factors that play a role in this case, for example, economic development and global security measures for example against terrorism. However, they can improve the quality of sports competition and thus bring the viewer more fun. The policies of the FIFA, general willingness of Europeans to a significant redistribution of income from football business have also a strategic importance in terms of future of football.
Most of the people value of football due to the talent of the players, their technical skills, assuming that football is a craft. Others love it for the inspiration, creativity, and improvisation. Historically, football was a tough game with virtually no rules. Today, football is a sports game, with clearly defined rules governing all aspects of football competition. Football matches are held with the participation of the two teams. The number of players in each team is no more than eleven, including the goalkeeper, and no less than seven. The winner of the game is the one of the teams that at the end of the main match will scope the greatest number of goals in the opponent's goal. Football has long been grown from a simple framework for games, today for many it is a kind of cult which is prestigious, expensive and profitable. It excites the mind and hearts of the huge number of fans all over the world.